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2013-10-25 08:04|鿴:16066|:0|:С

ֳݻӢevolutionѧָȺŴ״֮ı仯ν״ָı֣ЩڷֳУᾭƲݵӴͻʹ״ı䣬ɸ֮Ŵ졣״ֻΪǨ֮ˮƽתƣŻȺдݡЩŴܵȻѡŴƯӰ죬ȺбýΪձϡʱͱʾ˽Ե˵ʵʱǣȺƵʵĸı䡣

 

Ȼѡʹ뷱ֳŴ״øΪձ飬ʹк״øϡСΪн״ĸ壬ܽͬ״תƵĺ֮״΢Сı仯Ȼѡʺı죬ʹӦԷԶԣŴƯʹ״ȺеռһЩı仯һЩʹܹɹֳżȻء

 

ָһȺԻзֳΪĸ塣һַɸΪܵ谭IJͬȺʱټͻ䡢ŴƯ䣬벻ͬڲͬ״ʹۻµ֮֡ʾֽ֪ǴӹͬȻȻ𽥷ֻ

 

ȻѡΪĽۣɲ˹Ƕ¡ءʿϸڴij1859ġԴ1930Ȼѡϵ¶Ŵ϶Ϊһγִۺۡ˽ġλġơȻѡ񣩡ĽԼԤԵ۳ΪִѧԭʹϵͳһĽ͡

 

Դ

 

ӢеġevolutionһʣԴĵġevolvereԭ˼ǽһһĶ򿪣Ľʷϣͬڵʽչһ̡ӢֵҲСչӾлȡ֮壬˷ɽ

 

1859ġԴһ1876ĵ棬Ҳԡevolvedֽβʱʹáıļ̳Сdescent with modificationı̡process of modificationǡָıԭdoctrine of the modification of speciesȡڡԴ7˵Ľadvance˲retrogression󡱣˵ӵ↑ʼǽ˲ڵ10ۣеﶼǾʱĽij̶ȶûΥģչͣ

 

ڡԴ汾ˡEvolutionֶΣֱԵسΪTheory of evolutionȷķơǷʵۣǷ֮⡣ڽ˵

 

ӴȻսӼĺĿ꣬ߵֱӽ

 

ͬķ

 

Դĵһİ䷭룬ڵ汾ͬͨеġһʣѧΪԴǺƺڴãáۡһµģɽʢ޸̨֮ۡ⣬һ̨ѧߡ̿Ҳһą́ۡȴĿαԡݻۡ棬Ӵ¾ѧҲ֪ͬһ׻ۡ

 

̨༭Ĵǵ䣬Ϊɵͼ߼ɼ򵥵ӵķչ̣˻ΪķʡݻΪΪӦʱյӱ䣬̬ΪԶ

 

ģ

 

΢۽۽

 

ʱ䳤̶ȣֳɡ΢۽΢롰۽΢۽ָУƵСΧı仯ֽIJ졣۽ָʱḶ̌ȵĹϵ۽ʷпܰȺʯ¼еͻȻ֡ʧĻڡֳͣ͵Խ͵زбʯ

 

 

ں۽Ḷ́಻ۣͬҪͻʯ¼Խ͵󡣴ͳĹΪ΢۽ۻ㹻ʱ֮γ֣۳ΪۡʽʷٷҡŶ˹1972ļƽۡΪĽʷͣͣḶ́ڴʱ䲢û̫ı仯ijЩдڹؼͬԴκУܵѸγɲֳ֮ٻָƽ⡣˱ܹĽͻʯ¼ƽ⡣ʵŶ¾н۵̬ڴý壬ǵ˹Ϊƽֻǽ۵һʽ˵ĽۣΪԵٽУڻʯIJƽԡʯ¼͡˵ĽۣȻʹڷӲΣչʱӵĹǽо֣ʱҲǵٽУڲֻͬDzͬвͬĽٶȡҲͬоУԷӽʵ൱

 

һԾۣΪֻҪһܹγɣҿֱܾ۵ʽֱ۶Դڽ硶͡ˮڵֱѽɽʯײԵӰڡ

 

ֳɾͿռһֳɽɽȣɽʾܴﵽֳɾͣɽʾĴڡ

 

ֳɾռһֳɽɽȣɽʾܴﵽֳɾͣɽʾĴڡֳɾͿռ˿ͼԶάʽ֣ҲάʽͼֱΪֳɾͣΪͱ

 

ѧģʽ

 

ıΪ֣Ҳܹѧģֵ͡ѧnumerical taxonomyΪ֣Щֽз࣬ҳǵԵϵ

 

ڵѧһΪĽԴڻı죨Ľ۵㣩ͻһЩԣ˸ӵḶ̌Լ򻯳ѧģ͡ڵѧʹԵģͣ罫Ϊÿһżһϵ˹ƴ˶żÿһеĻƵʡֽ÷ԵķʽһֳΪֳɾͿռ䣨fitness landscapeͼΣڷֳϵ֮ԡͼοԿвͬͬʱнϸߵֳɾ͡

 

ЩıԻֲͬıѧάռļɣӦϵķЩѧŵǼ൱ȷȱȷȡΪж衣

 

֤

 

ѧ뻯ʯ¼

 

Ҷ滯ʯҶϺзݣԾڴԼ5ǰ2ǧǰ

 

ҶʯҶϺзݣԾڴԼ5ǰ2ǧǰ

 

ѧﻯʯΪоԵϵһо֮ʬͨᾭ΢ֽʹۼʧʱЩżܻΪijЩض档ֻҪԹŴɵĺۼ屾ԳΪʯʯ˽̶൱ҪΪʯǽΪֱӵ֤ݣҴϸѶ

 

ڻʯγɹУĺۼڿٵܵ˲ֽᷢΡΪĻʯͨԴԹǵȼӲλģĹγɡӲĹڶ֮󣬻ΪлĸܣһЩ©ɰʯᾭЩ©ڲֹ̳Ϊûãı屾ıҲһЩʯ屾类⣬ŴĽӡֲڵصΪ¶ѹö̼ɳΪʯ

 

ͬʱﻯʯֵڲͬĵزУ˱ܹо֮䡢ִ֮ĹϵʧĻᡱָֹ̿ܳȴδֵ֣֮ĻʯΪɻʯλмʼArchaeopteryxʯԼֵһ־֫Ĵdzˮ㣨TiktaalikĹɻʯ

 

ʼԭģ

 

ʼԭģ

 

ʯ¼ڹоƣΪγɻʯסԣ嶯ϲû̫ܹγɻʯIJ֣һЩγɻʯĻСʹʯγ֮ҲпΪijЩԭ򱻴ݻ٣ʹôʯɢ״ֻ̬ʯܹϵĸıȺֻռٲ֣ǻ仯ʹȺģСʹγɻʯĻԽС⣬ʯ޷оڲٹͻơ

 

Ŵ½½ᣬ˶ڴ½Ǩ

 

AͼʾŴ½½ᣬ˶ڴ½Ǩ㡣

 

Bͼʾ½ʧ֮󣬸ܵγԴΡ

 

ѧֲַ

 

ڰƶɵ½ƯԼʱǰɵĺƽ߶ȵı仯Ͽ½ţı½֮ԣʹһЩңԶĵȻܹڵصڳƵﻯʯȴΪɽĸ룬ʹе־൱IJ졣

 

ޱԼ޵ľʨ볤¹⣬ط̥ȽΪԭʼдදѴ½ȴȻβܵдࡣ˲ͬ½֮֮⣬ڴ½ڽ죬ҲΪܹҵƵб̨֡塢ձй⨺֮IJ졣

 

̬Ƚ

 

׵ֺ֫ıȽϣ֧˼׵йͬȵۡԣȻࡢèֺ̬֫죬ҪܹơЩͬԴĹ죬Ӧ˲ͬĹܣץաߡӾС

 

һЩڹƣȴв̬ͬij뼹׵ȣ뼹׵۾ࡢϺȡࡰԴĹ죬ӦͬĹܣСߡйӾ

 

 

еļ׵̥ڷڶdzƣڷĹУƻ𽥼٣γɸֵ̬ԣȻֳļ׵ܴ󣬵ǵ̥̬ڷȴdzƣȻѾûࡢ벸̥СĶĻᱻ壬̥ȻҲֹ죬ȴ̥ʧ

 

1870̥ѧ˵Ķ˹ء˶ΪͬͬһηʱڵIJҲֳЩڽϵ׽̶ȣЩʷظ֣ܹκ̡̥ǵ1997꣬˶ʽƷɭǰһЩо֣̥̬ȫϽϵ׽̶ȡʹˣֽijЩѧ̿Ȼʹú˶ۡ

 

ֱ̥Ʒڼ䣬̥ѧڽƵĽͲû̫ĽչǽĽѧEvolitionary developmental biologyEvo Devoоѧ뷢ѧѧŽϣͻĸıڶ̬Ŀƹ̡ͬʱҲ൱Ķ֮䣬ҲӵͬĵػԼͬĻڲͬʱռ䣬вͬáЩض﷢̵ĻҪΪһHox

 

֤

 

ѧﻯѧùĸַӣоԵϵЩӰ˺ǺᣨRNAȥǺᣨDNAȡڵĿѧѾûԽЩӵļСжоЩеѧŷֱΪѧѧ⻹һָΪӵѧרŷ๹졣

 

ѧ͸ȥǺеıȽϣԽ봫ͳѧ·ϵϵַͨȷϲǿѧо֤ݵ©޲DNAɵIJԼΪ1.2%ɵIJԼΪ1.6%Ϊ6.6%˾ƶϲԳԵϵһɺ16S rRNAУҲоԵϵҪӣЩоϵͳij֣ϸֿ

 

ѧҲ֧йͬȵ˵Ϊĵʣ塢DNAۺøRNAۺøڽԭʼϸҲڸӵIJڡЩʵĺIJڲͬбƵĹ빦ܣϸӵн϶ĵʴελprotein subunitԵظӵĵ໥á

 

һȥǺƬΣȻ֪ƵУȴ޷òɵʵ졣õĺƬγΪα֧йͬȵ֤֮һ֮޷ãΪڽУͻۻԵʡ

 

ҩ

 

΢벡ĿҩԣҽѧҪ⣬Ҳǽ֤֮һ1943ʱԿʹùأ֣ƣ1947Ѿ־߿ҩԵľꡣ1960üùأͬΪҩԾֵɢʹ1980ùأ2002ʱѷֿùصľ֡

 

DNAṹλģ໷γɵ˫

 

DNAṹλģ໷γɵ˫

 

Ŵ

 

ŴǷһЩ״ϣҲضΪ۾ɫһһŴԸĸһŴ״ɻƣһ׻Ϊ͡

 

һ׿ɹ۲״γĹΪΪ͡Щ״Ի뻷ĽáıͲȫŴƤɹǾڸ˵Ļ䡣ÿ֮ԶвͬķӦΪ͵IJ죬ӵа׻״ĸ壬岻ɹڣ൱ɹˡ

 

DNAһЩŴѶϢDNAǺּijӡͬĻвͬļУЩԱʽγŴѶϢϸDNA뵰ʾۼγһΪȾɫĹ죬Ⱦɫϵضλãlocusʱϵڲ֮ͬ죬Щʽ仯̬Ϊλalleleͻʹиı䣬µĵλ򡣵ͻ䷢ݻʱγɵĵλܻӰ˻Ƶ״ʹ͸ı䡣һλӦһ״ν٣״ΪӣнõĻơ

 

 

ͻ

 

ͻָŴʷı䡣ͻȾɫ죨ΪȾɫĿͽṹ죩ͻͻ䡣һ˵ͻ䣬Ǻеĸı䣬Ҳǻͻ䡣ͻDzŴԭϸеŴʣͨǺǺᣩܹ෽ʽı䣬ϸʱĸƴ󡢷ߵ䡢ѧʵӰDzȾϸĻͻ䣬շϸΪֳ֡ϸͻܹŴһϸͻͨڸС

 

ͻܶԸкҲܶԸ棬߼ߡкԻΪ֢״ЩԻɶʱͿʹõһЩȻܻɲ䣬ҲʹijЩƣһͺѪ򼲲ˣűеֿ

 

Ҳ޺ͻΪͻ䣬ȺеijƵҪܵͻӰ졣Щͻ䲻Ӱᣬ˴ֵĻû״£Ȼȶĵͻ䲻ϷһԵı任Ϊͻ䣬һԲɾʱͨʹʧȥá

 

תӣtransposonĻƬΣڻĽϰҪɫܹƶУȡԭеĻ򣬲ϵıͶԡDNAҲΪÿ䣬ڶĻвʮٵ»

 

 

ֳĹУȾɫϵκһԵλ򶼻һŴһǶֳֶԣ״ͬԴȾɫеĵλֳϸļѹУᷢ顣һֲͬǺѲϵĹ̡

 

ԭܹ֮͸Ӻϵȷʽֱӽ˴˵ĻԭҲȽϳϸӵĶֲֳͨϸļʱڣΪȾɫĻcrossover顣ķƵʽϵͣλýϽӽĵλҲϲ׽˿ɵλʼλá

 

ֳеϵ¶Ŵܹʹкͻ䱻ͻ䱻ΪкͻЧ˵һλ޷лʱYȾɫ壩ΪкͻۻʹȺЧȺСӢeffective population sizeдNeΪϣ޲ɭЧӦHill-Robertson effectȾɫ˻Ϊϳ֣Muller's ratchetȽ׳ֳС

 

 

Ŵһ澭ֳݵһΪֱתƣһҲ͸ˮƽתƣӢhorizontal gene transferдHGT֮ڻ֮䴫ݡϸʹַʽоֿпֵˮƽתƴڡgene flowָ֮תơ

 

ͣŴӣDzͣڱ֣ĸͱҲӵбͿԣphenotypic plasticityܹڻδı״仯ܹŴһ˻ĸı䣬ȾɫȻܸı򣬵ֳܹ룬ʹγɡ

 

һ˵ѡˡ񡱣Ȼѡ롰񡱣ѡ񣩡Ҫԭסĸı䣬֮ϵı仯ڷֳ¶ѡ񡣶Щµ״ܻкڸ屾ѡķʵϲȷҲһЩʾѡãΪ̬ѡecological selection

 

 

ҲΪǨƣmigrationȺ֮䲢δܵĻϵ谭ʱᾭһЩǨƣʹڲͬȺɢγΪ˹ءΪһ־ʻhomogenisingḶܹ́ѡӦáܵij谭ȾɫĿǵĸңֳ룬γɵ֮һ

 

ȺеλƶҲܵȺṹ谭ȺĴСǵֲȻ״̬Ⱥֳȫȫʵвˣ˵ϵ׽̶ȻЩƶӴӰ졣ҵǨٵʱ򣬻ԽӰҲϵ͡

 

ŴƯ

 

ƯָȺеλƵÿһ֮ı仯ֱ仯ܹѧ٣²ƽ״̬£أѧģ͡״̬УĵλƵʽӽֲȺģϴ󣬻ƯĻʻϵͣȺģСʱ򣬻ƯΪԡ

 

һȺԭȺ֮зߵĻƵͬǷȺԭȺĻ޷ߵĻƵʽнԶΪЧӦӵ¹ǨƵϦǵİʲˣԴԼ200ˣϰͨ顣Ⱥİΰۺ֢ƵʽȺߡ

 

16SrRNAĻķNϵl䣬ݻv̷֞ϵyžc

 

16SrRNAĻķNϵl䣬ݻv̷֞ϵyžcһ@Nǿ˹Carl WoeseˮƽDƵĴڣʹHԴPSܱȈDƬ@ʾĸ}sS

 

ˮƽת

 

ˮƽתƣӢhorizontal gene transferдHGTǸ彫ŴʴݵDZĹֻ̡ʹŴʵֱϵϵĸ֮

 

ˮƽתҲԾɿԭתƣantigenic shiftreassortmentӽӦhybridisation۲졣ܹ͸תãtransductionּ䴫ݻϸܹϸ塢תãtransformationԼϸнӺϣconjugationµĻ򡣶µĻܹʽϸĻСӽֲĿǰ֪10ϵܹӽڲ鶯УҲӽӣֻͨӽֳHGTҲϸݿҩԵķʽ֮һЩֱHGTԭĽҪơ

 

HGTĴڣʹϵѧӸӣҲʹֵĽ̳һعϵmetaphorŴѶֳ֮⣬Ҳ֮䴫ݡʹѧұڽͽϵʱ򣬱ֵعϵҽͬĽϡ

 

ȸֻ֦չβĴ֤һʹ׳ΪʳĿ꣬һܹ

 

ȸֻ֦չβĴ֤һʹ׳ΪʳĿ꣬һܹԡ

 

Ȼѡ

 

ڸֻı죬ʹͬһȺУͬ淽ʽͷֳʽͬı䣬á֮ԳΪΪѡ񲢷Ưͻһı䷢ʱֻijЩضȺܹͨЩ顣һЩʱΪӵȵλѡʽаȵȡ

 

ָijΪӵнϸߵķֳᣬǵĻᱻʹͬơָΪ˱ϲöԲͬĻɸѡͨũҵҵdzϡ⣬ѧеɸѡΪʵֻȻһ֣ûȷķֱ

 

Щѡƣ¶ӦڽһֻDZԣӵиָܻӷ㣬ַ㼸κηֳᣬ١

 

 

Ӧ

 

Ӱܹ֮ӦĻֻҪܹʹӵиƵḶ́ԳΪӦҪעǣӦǷĺ׼һӵƵܻһгΪȱݣҲܽΪνûκĬϷĿģֻӦDzӦ

 

ʹڽвDZҪ֮ľϵʹĻӦ֮⣬иһı仯ЩľֵܹĹϵֳࡣһDzԳƾָܵͬѡʳĹϵһǶԳƾָܵͬѡɭľȡҲоԣЩڷֳľѹ֮£𽥷չ൱صۻΪëʳԡ

 

γɹ̵ıȽͼ

 

γɹ̵ıȽͼ

 

γ

 

γܵ͵ĻӰ죬ҪԷֳ2͡һγɣallopatric speciationȺܵ룬γֵϿϿγ֡벢һʹַֻٶȽӽпܻӽ̨İͷͷ̣ԭܵɽչ̬ͬͷȴͷ̽ͬγɣsympatric speciationָͬ棬ȴΪֳͨΪIJֳ롣磬ӡһͬδӽȺ

 

⻹ֽγɷʽγɣperipatric speciation֮ͬ䣬ָԭܵ룬֮ȺֽӴȴѾγ֡γɶ˹ءͬʱ֧˼ƽۣЧӦйأСȺΪؼӡγɣparapatric speciationָȻ򣬵ΪѶ֡ǻ״֣ring speciesȦΧĺڼŸLarus argentatus

 

֪֮һɶ

 

֪֮һɶ

 

 

ָֻijϵȺʧԡijһֵʱ̣ʹǰѾʧȥκηֳĿܡֵDZڷΧ൱ȷʱ൱ѡ

 

йδģԭΪĴı䡣ص5Σֱռڣ44ǧǰڣ36ǧǰڣ25ǧǰڣ21ǧǰѼĩڣ6ǧ5ǰжͺڵĶ¼Լ95%ĺ70%½ضʧѼĩڵİѼ¼Ϊ

 

λҹ԰ǰ͵ʯstromatolite֪ʯ¼

 

λҹ԰ǰ͵ʯstromatolite֪ʯ¼

 

Դ

 

ʼԴĿǰδˡѧĽоͨγʼ̡Ϊιǣ浽̫ϵγɹ̣ԶԴоѧ뻯ѧ1952-ʵУʷ̹޵¡԰顢ˮȷӣģԭʼ״̬״ʵʡо֣Ϊԭϵлӣп̫УǺ׻ɽ

 

ڰŴڵлӽ̣ڿѧһΪǺȵǺ֣֮Ʒת¼øĵʣǺᣬЩ۵֤ݲࡣ֬ij򹹳ԭʼϸĤ֮ڹȹ̣γĵϸ

 

Ҫ¼

 

ڽУؼԵֻ̣ܹɳʱĿǰ֪Ļʯ¼УżdzԼ38ǰԭ˵ϸ33ǰ22ǰų˵ϸ̾6ǰ޼׵֡ٴ֮ǰΪǰ͡

 

54ǧ3ǰ51ǧǰʹ󱬷ʼʱִڷϵѾֲ֣֮֡֫↑ʼ½ءάֲ43ǧ949ǰ֡Ӳࡢij֡36ǧ3ǰ29ǧǰάֲ↑ʼչɴɭ֣ͬʱֲ֣֧࿪ʼչֻƲ࣬¼

 

ʼ24ǧ5ǰʱԿΪֲ֧14ǧ4ǰ6ǧ5ǰֲ֣ڰѼ¼

 

6ǧ5ǰ֮ΪࡢܹΪֲڷ۵濪ʼչֲ벸鶯ʱȡֲ࣬Ϊ֧ȵԳ360ǰֱ10ǰִˣѧHomo sapiensŵ

 

Ŀ˽

 

Ŀ˽ۡ

 

˼ʷ

 

ϣʱƽ˼Ѿ֣簢ǿΪԺС1819ͣѾԴԹͬȵĹѧˣǵһλΪѧ۵Ŀѧҡ뻪ʿΪҪƵĽۣΪһ˵Ľ͡ڴķ֮ǰδչٵ۱֡⣬ڵʱδ֪κŴƣ޷Ϊβͬвͬ䵱ʱӴ״Ϊλ״״ϵĸʹκαƺʧ

 

ϵ¶Ŵ״ķ󣬽ԭ״ϵ⣬ȻһʼȴܵԡԭŴѧҲܴĵͻΪԭ

 

ֱ20ͣѧɵ¡ѩѧأSewall WrightǣJ. B. S. HaldaneŽȺŴѧ۽ϡټ˹Ħذ¶˹಼Ȼ˹衢˹ءΡɭ˹ر˹˵оֳΪ´ִۺ1920굽1940ʼΡ

 

ϸŴƣҪȵ﷢ֺΪŴʣԼˣݸֵоǺ˫ṹԼѧĽ֮

 

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ѧоҪѧţֵ̽Դ͸ı䣬Լ֮ԵϵЩоӰ˴ͳķѧϵͳѧij֡ѧevo-devoȽϲͬڷеı仯ɴ֮̽Ĺϵ̡ѧרעԴֵ̽IJ죬ֳΪѧ

 

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ѧѧIJڣȻһֻĹ۵㣬ŴʷΪλѧԷǻĻΪλ

 

 

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ԴӡԴ𡷳֮󣬽ڽ̵ͳϡ飬ǹIJ֣롶ʥС͡ijͻ

 

۵ij֣ҲһЩڽ̹۵۵۳֡۵Ϊ񵼽ۡ˴ͳĴ֮⣬ҲһֳΪǻƵ۳֣Ϊijֱضܵijǻİš

 

 

һֶڽ۵壬Լ塢ѧƵ19ĩ20ͳIJ˼ҪԴѧԴĽã۵ĺղءʷѧҲһЩѧ˼룬̥۵ĺ˶



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